Recipes

Welserin’s Apple Pie & Hot Water Lard Crust

One of the perks of entering into Ice Dragon is that I have new content for my blog, mostly ready for web viewing. This year was the first year I’d really entered anything on my own, and I had three submissions: a pie, two lip balms, and hippocras. My documentation was rushed because of some real-life obligations, but just fine for the purposes of a blog, and not only was I happy with my execution of these entries, but the feedback was nice as well.

I’ve been excited to make this pie. Because quinces are hard to come by where I live, I substituted apples (which are found elsewhere in the book with similar spices and cooked in similar ways). The apples are peeled and cored, roasted in butter, then stuffed with currants, sugar, cinnamon, and cloves. A sauce of the same spices, wine, and animal fat is poured atop them. (I used bacon fat, because that is what I had on-hand.) The apples are placed in a coffin crust, which the author references earlier in the book.

I’ve included here the German recipes from Stopp and the English translations from Armstrong, found on David Friedman’s website.

The Original Pie

<<68>> Ain basteten von kittine zú machen

Schelt die kittine vnnd holdert die pútzen rain saúber heraús mit ainem eisselin, bacht sý jn ainem schmaltz/ darnach filt die kittine mit weinberlach, zúcker, zimerrerlach, negellen, darnach nempt das marck von ainem oxen oder ain nierenfaistin hackt klain oder ain abscheffet, das faist von ainem flesch/ vnnd thiet daran gúten malúasier oder rainfal, zúcker, rerlach, negellen, wie eúch gút dúnckt, den taig zú der pasteten fint jr no [61], wie jr jn machen solt.

68 To make a quince pie 

Peel the quinces and cut the core cleanly out with a knife, fry them in fat. After that stuff the quinces with currants, sugar, cinnamon and cloves. Afterwards take beef marrow or finely chopped kidney suet or skimmed fat from some other meat and put ood Malavosia or Reinfal on it, sugar, cinnamon and cloves, however it seems good to you. The dough for the pie is found in number [sixty one].

The Crust

<<61>> Ain pastetentaig zú machen zú allen auffgesetzten pasteten

Nempt ain mell, das pest, so jr bekomen múgen, vngefarlich 2 gút gaúffen oder darnach jr die grosß oder klain haben welt, thiets auff den disch vnnd riert 2 air mit ainem messer daran vnnd saltzt ain wenig, macht jn ainem pfenndlin ain wasser vnnd wie 2 gúte air grosß schmaltz, last es als anainander ergan vnnd sieden/ darnach schit es an das obgemelt mell ob dem disch vnnd mach ain starcken taig vnnd arbait jn woll, wie dich gút dúnckt, wan es jm somer jst, músß man an des wasser stat ain fleschbrie nemen vnnd an des schmaltz stat ain abscheffet von der súpen nemen, wan der taig gearbait jst, so machent jn zú ainer rúnden kugel vnnd thenet jn fein mit den fingern vornen aus oder mit ainem walgelholtz/ das jn der mit ain hechin beleib, darnach lands erstaren an der keltin, darnach setzent daig aúf, jn maß jch eúch gezaigt hab/ aúch balten ain taig zú der teckin vnd welget jn zú ainer deckin vnnd nempt ain wasser vnnd bestreichts oben an der deckin vnnd oben an der aúffgesetzten pasten vnnd thiets mitt den fingern woll zusamen, last an ainem ort ain klain lechlin, vnd das es woll zúsamengedruckt sey, das nicht offenstand/ blassen jn das lechlin, das jr gelassen habt, so wirt die deckin hibsch aúfflaúffen, so trúcken das lechlin von stúnd an zú, darnach thits jn offen, set vor ain mell aúff die schissel/ secht, das jr den offen recht haitzt, so wirt es ain schene pasteten, also macht man all aúffgesetzt pasteten den taig.

61 To make a pastry dough for all shaped pies 

Take flour, the best that you can get, about two handfuls, depending on how large or small you would have the pie. Put it on the table and with a knife stir in two eggs and a little salt. Put water in a small pan and a piece of fat the size of two good eggs, let it all dissolve together and boil. Afterwards pour it on the flour on the table and make a strong dough and work it well, however you feel is right. If it is summer, one must take meat broth instead of water and in the place of the fat the skimmings from the broth. When the dough is kneaded, then make of it a round ball and draw it out well on the sides with the fingers or with a rolling pin, so that in the middle a raised area remains, then let it chill in the cold. Afterwards shape the dough as I have pointed out to you. Also reserve dough for the cover and roll it out into a cover and take water and spread it over the top of the cover and the top of the formed pastry shell and join it together well with the fingers. Leave a small hole. And see that it is pressed together well, so that it does not come open. Blow in the small hole which you have left, then the cover will lift itself up. Then quickly press the hole closed. Afterwards put it in the oven. Sprinkle flour in the dish beforehand. Take care that the oven is properly heated, then it will be a pretty pastry. The dough for all shaped pastries is made in this manner.

Welserin’s Apple Pie

Ingredients:

Filling:
3 Gala apples
Butter
Handful dried currants
Cloves
Cinnamon
Sugar
Raisins
Sauce:
½ c red wine
¼ c white sugar
Cloves
Cinnamon
Bacon fat 
Crust: (makes enough for bottom crust and lid)
3 c all-purpose flour (plus more for surface)
4 oz butter (1 stick)
4 oz lard
1/3 c water
Salt
1 egg, beaten

Instructions:

  1. Pre-heat oven to 375F.
  2. Peel and core apples, but try not to puncture the bottom of the apple. (A melon baller works great for scooping out the core and seeds.) Butter baking pan, and rub butter over and in apples. Roast apples until soft.
  3. Make your crust: Prepare your flour and salt in a bowl, making a well for the liquid. Melt the butter and lard in the water, then pour into the well. Mix the dough with a spoon, then work by hand. Separate two pieces, one for the bottom crust, one for the lid. Roll it out while warm, then lay out the bottom crust in your pie plate or small springform pan. Don’t be afraid to piece the dough together if it falls apart!
  4. Place the roasted applies into the pie crust. Combine spices, sugar, and currants. Stuff apples with currants, reserve some sugar and spice blend. Add raisins to bottom of crust (just for fun!).
  5. Warm wine with sugar, spices, and bacon fat in sauce pan. Pour sauce over all fruit.
  6. Roll out the lid, then pinch crusts together. Make a hole in the lid with a wooden spoon.
  7. Bake at 375F for about 20 minutes, then add an egg wash to the top crust and bake for an additional 5-10 minutes.

 

 References

The Cookbook of Sabina Welserin, English translation by Valoise Armstrong. Published online by David Friedman. 1998. http://www.daviddfriedman.com/Medieval/Cookbooks/Sabrina_Welserin.html

Das Kochbuch der Sabina Welserin. Hg. von Hugo Stopp. Mit einer Übersetzung von Ulrike Gießmann. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag C. Winter Heidelberg, 1980 (Germanische Bibliothek: N.F.: Reihe 4, Texte). http://www.staff.uni-giessen.de/gloning/tx/sawe.htm

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Beef and Bacon Pie

Ah, winter. The time of research, respite, and repair. I’ve spent much of it knee-deep in a few different books researching pies in their various forms, so when Lord Olaf Steinabrjotr approached me to make something for Æthelmearc Region One Twelfth Night, I responded with, “How about a pie?” It would, in theory, be the prize for a heavy combat tournament or a feat of strength competition, so I asked myself what typical manly fighter-types like the most. Beef. Bacon. Beer. And probably more bacon.

Easy enough. My mind went immediately to the Beef and Bacon Pies found over at Inn at the Crossroads.

She uses and redacts a 16th century English recipe from A Propre New Booke of Cokery, 1545, but I found this recipe to be lacking in the spices that my palate craves for this. So I went searching through my beloved resource, The Cookbook of Sabina Welserin (published 1553 — merely 8 years of difference here), and went searching for her own take on beef pies.

Here are the recipes I used for reference:

A Propre New Booke of Cokery, 1545, per Inn at the Crossroads:

To make Pyes.

Pyes of mutton or beif must be fyne mynced & seasoned with pepper and salte and a lytel saffron to colour it, suet or marrow a good quantitie, a lytell vynegre, pruynes, great reasons, and dates, take the fattest of the broath of powdred beefe.

Das Kochbuch der Sabina Welserin, 1553: 

120 If you would make a game pie, which should be warm

Lard the game well and cook it and make a formed [pastry] dish and lay in it preserved limes and cinnamon sticks and currants and lay the game therein and also put beef suet into it and a little Malavosia and let it cook. This pie is better warm than cold.

152 To make a good roast

Take veal or a sirloin of beef, lay it overnight in wine, afterwards stick it on a spit. Put it then in a pot. Put good broth therein, onions, wine, spices, pepper, ginger and cloves and let it cook therein. Do not over salt it.

68 To make a quince pie

Peel the quinces and cut the core cleanly out with a knife, fry them in fat. After that stuff the quinces with currants, sugar, cinnamon and cloves. Afterwards take beef marrow or finely chopped kidney suet or skimmed fat from some other meat and put good Malavosia or Reinfal on it, sugar, cinnamon and cloves, however it seems good to you. The dough for the pie is found in number [sixty one].

Given that marrow bones are difficult to come by for me, I opted to follow the Inn at the Crossroads recipe and swap bacon in for it. However, unlike that recipe, I absolutely reserved the bacon fat — though the flavor profile of this pie is inherently different because of the bacon, the richness is still there because of that reserved fat. I added currants, ginger, cloves, and cinnamon to the English recipe, ultimately turning this pie into something inherently more German for the time. I then tucked it all into a standard short paste crust and made a thickened sauce with the plentiful drippings. The end result was much sweeter than I’d anticipated because of the dates, but ultimately exactly what I’d wanted: a hearty 16th century pie.

 

Astrid’s Beef and Bacon Pie

For the pie:
2 lbs beef roast
6 slices thick-cut bacon, chopped
Handful dried currants
Handful raisins
Handful dates, seeded and chopped
Powdered ginger
Powdered cloves
Powdered cinnamon
Salt
32 oz Beef Broth
1/4 c red wine vinegar, approximately
1 c water, approximately
Flour or cornstarch

For 1 crust:
2 c flour, approx.
1 c butter, cubed
Pinch salt
Ice water

  1. Cube beef, then sear on all sides in pan. Set aside.
  2. Chop bacon, fry in pot. Do not strain fat. Add beef, dried fruit, spices, beef broth, vinegar and water.
  3. Bring to a boil, then cover and simmer until liquid is reduced and beef is tender.
  4. Set the meat and fruit aside, straining all solids from the liquid. Separate about 1/4 c of the liquid from the rest.
  5. Add flour or cornstarch to thicken, stirring over low heat until desired consistency is reached.
  6. Prepare short crust (2 batches if you want the crust and a lid), blind-baking the bottom crust at 350*F for 10-15 min.
  7. Add meat and fruit and the reserved 1/4 c liquid. Cover with lid; press crusts together and poke a hole in the lid.
  8. Bake at 350*F until crust begins to brown. Add an egg wash and bake for another 5-10 min.
  9. Pour warmed gravy into the pie through a funnel into the hole in the middle, then serve.

Ale and Onion Soup

One of my go-to recipes for sideboards and lunches is an ale and onion soup; in fact, it’s appeared at almost every sideboard I’ve cooked. It became my go-to because not only is it a solid vegetarian option, but it also really translates well to the modern palate; we commonly eat one form of it as French onion soup. I originally found a recipe for it on Gode Cookery, then modified it to my tastes from there. I always omit saffron due to cost, add minced garlic, and use stout or some other dark beer instead of ale. These are my personal preferences for this soup, and I always serve it with crusty bread.

The original recipe from Gode Cookery:

Oyle soppes. ¶ Take a good quantite of onyons, and myce hem, noyt to smale, & seth hem in faire water, And take hem vppe; and then take a good quantite of stale ale, as .iij. galons, And there-to take a pynte of goode oyle that is fraied, and cast the onyons there-to, And lete al boyle togidre a grete wile; and caste there-to Saffron and salt, And þen put brede, in maner of brewes, and cast the licour there-on, and serue hit forth hote.

– Austin, Thomas. Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery-Books. Harleian MS. 279 & Harl. MS. 4016, with extracts from Ashmole MS. 1429, Laud MS. 553, & Douce MS 55. London: for The Early English Text Society by N. Trübner & Co., 1888.

The Gode Cookery Translation:

Take a good quantity of onions, and mince them, not to small, & boil them in fair water, And take them up; and then take a good quantity of stale ale, as 3 gallons, And there-to take a pint of good oil that is fried, and cast the onions there-to, And let all boil together a great while; and cast there-to Saffron & salt, And then put bread, in manner of brews, and cast the liquid there-on, and serve it forth hot.

As for a recipe — I’m not sure I’ve ever made a small batch of this soup, and I always buy the giant bulk bag of onions for a feast, because I use a lot of them… So the rough recipe follows as such:

Ale and Onion Soup

Ingredients:
Lots of sweet yellow onions, finely sliced
Minced garlic
Butter or canola oil
4 bottles of dark beer
6-8+ boxes of broth
Sage
Salt
Pepper

Directions:
Peele, halve, and thinly slice onions. Sautee with minced garlic in butter or canola oil, then add beer and broth. (Vegetable broth if offering to vegetarians, otherwise use beef broth.) Add salt, pepper, and sage to taste. Serve hot with bread and butter.

Chicken, Bacon, and Grape Pie

The second pie/tart I taught at the September All Thing in Port Oasis was also from Sabina Welserin’s cookbook. I made this tart in hand-pie form several years ago and was pretty impressed with it, so I decided to give it a go again for this kitchen. I used chicken thighs instead of small birds, added ginger, and cooked it all in white wine before putting it between short paest crusts. The next time I make this, I think I’ll make a wine sauce with drippings to pour in the crust’s slits when I pull the pie to do the egg wash on the top crust.

98 If you would make a pastry with small birds

Take a plentiful number of birds and make a layer of birds and a layer of bacon slices, until the pastry is filled. Also put a few grapes into it. And let it bake a little and put a small drop of good wine thereon and then it is ready. If you have no fresh butter, then use beef suet.

Chicken, Bacon, and Grape Pie

Ingredients (for 2 pie fillings):
~2lb boneless, skinless chicken thighs
Butter
White wine
Salt
Ginger
2 handfuls grapes, halved
1 package bacon

Trim excess fat from chicken thighs, then roughly chop thighs in halves or thirds. Butter pan over medium heat, add chicken, salt, and ginger to taste. Brown  on both sides, then add white wine and simmer. When liquid is mostly gone, remove chicken, then add grapes and a few slices of bacon. Cook grapes until the bacon is lightly cooked, but still tender, then set both aside. Cook the rest of the bacon until tender. Arrange chicken in a layer on the bottom of the prepared pie crust, then a few small pats of butter on top, then grapes, and cover with bacon. Pour wine drippings over it all, then cover with top crust. Serve leftover bacon to kitchen staff. Bake at 350*F (for 10 minutes in a convection oven); remove to put egg wash on top crush, then finish (for another 5 minutes in a convection oven).

An Apple Tart

Yesterday I was invited back to the Shire of Port Oasis to teach another hands-on cooking class at their September All Thing. This time, we made two tarts from Sabina Welserin’s Cookbook: 79 An Apple Tart and 98 If You Would Make A Pastry With Small Birds. Together, my Happy Kitchen Helpers™ and I made short paest crust and filling for four pies, which we ate with the rest of the shire at the end of the day.

I made two slight modifications to this recipe, neither of which are uncommon for this cookbook: I added ginger and cooked the apples and raisins in wine, both of which I will definitely do again.

 

79 An apple tart

Peel the apples cleanly and take out the cores, chop them small and fry them in fat, put raisins, sugar and cinnamon therein and let it bake.

 

An Apple Tart

Ingredients (For 2 pie fillings):

1 bag of Gala apples
4 handfuls raisins
Cinnamon
Ginger
Butter
White wine
Light brown sugar

Peel, core, and chop apples into thin slices. Butter your pan, then add in half of the apples, 2 handfuls of raisins, cinnamon, ginger, and white wine. Cook over medium heat, stirring occasionally, until apples soften. Set these apples aside in a mixing bowl, then make your second batch. Combine the two with light brown sugar to taste, then set aside to cool. Pour into prepared pie shells, add a top crust, and bake at 350*F. I baked mine for 10 minutes in a convection oven, then pulled them out to put an egg wash on the crust, then finished for another 5 minutes.

Sabina Welserin’s Herb Tart

The Shire of Port Oasis held an Althing this summer where I taught a hands-on class on how to make two tarts: the White Roman Tart from Ouverture de Cuisine and Sabina Welserin’s Herb Tart (133). One was a given, and the other, a gamble.

133 An herb tart

First, take a small handful of hyssop, mint, chard and sage. There should be three times more of chard than of the other herbs, according to how large one will make the tart. Take clarified butter and fry the herbs named above therein, take raisins, small currants and sugar, as much as you feel is right. Take then eight eggs, beat them carefully into that which is described above and make a pastry shell with an egg and bake it slowly.

My Happy Kitchen Helpers™ helped me de-vein the chard and chop the herbs for this tart, and they were gracious enough to stand around the kitchen, chat with me, and listen to me blather on about my love of Sabina Welserin and general medieval and renaissance cooking for awhile. At the end of it, this tart was savory, but on this go-around needed salt, because that was the one addition I’d forgotten for this recipe. It’s definitely different than our modern palate prepares us for, but the Shire was very gracious — and since both tarts were finished by the end of the day, I’ll call it a success worth sharing.

I actually don’t have a specific redaction for this recipe — the one listed above is easy enough to follow: Chop chard, mint, and sage (omitting hyssop because it’s not easy to come by here), fry in butter with spices (and salt!). Add in raisins, currants, and spices, then let cool. Beat eggs and cream, mix together all ingredients, pour into prepared pie shell, and bake at 425*F until done. ..Maybe I should make a better recipe for this, but it was pretty standard as far as pies go. And, with the permission of Lady Kismira, some photos!

To make Dutch rice

While on my quest for a rice dish to accompany my stuffed cabbages, I couldn’t find many recipes that weren’t sweetened, and I had really been wanting savory rice for this menu. The recipe I settled on (and ultimately omitted the sugar from) was from Gent KANTL 15, a late 15th century/early 16th century Dutch cookbook, as translated by Christianne Muusers.

2.145 Om rijst te maken

Men moet rijst nemen en week het goed en droog het bij het vuur. Dan moet men een grote aardewerken pot nemen die schoon is. Dan moet men die in het vuur zetten met vleesnat dat niet te zout is en dat de pot niet al te veel vult (?). Schuim dan als het dik is af, en dan moet men de kruiderij erin doen. Dat is suiker, gember, kaneel, saffraan [en] langepeper. Dit is rijst op een vleesdag. Is het een gerecht op de visdag, dan moet men amandelmelk nemen in plaats van vleesnat. Vertrouw op uw smaak. Voor elke gelt [vocht] een half pond rijst en een half pond suiker.

2.145 To make rice

Take rice and steep it well and dry it near the fire. Then take a large, clean earthenware pot. Then put it in the fire with meat stock that is not too salty and does not fill the pot too much (?). Remove the froth ehan it is thick, and then add the spices. That is sugar, ginger, cinnamon, saffron and long pepper. This is rice on a meat day. Is it a dish on a fish day, then one must use almond milk instead of meat stock. Trust your own taste. For every gelt [liquid] a half pound rice and a half pound sugar.

I boiled 1 part white rice in 2 parts beef stock with drippings from the meat mixture I’d prepared for the stuffed cabbages, ginger, cinnamon, and black pepper. I omitted saffron and long pepper due to cost, opting for black pepper as a substitution for long pepper, though I know the taste is much different, due to it being on hand.