Author: astridrvigaskegg

Harvest Raid XXVI Menu

Earlier this year, I was asked to be the feastocrat for Harvest Raid XXVI in Bemus Point, NY. I’m pretty excited to be in the kitchen with my Laurel, Sir Ian, making pies!  Recipes and write-ups will be posted after the event.

First Remove
Coffin pork pie
Mushrooms and onions
Stuffed eggs
Served with mustard, pickles

Second Remove
Formed sturgeon pie
Geneva/herb tarts with cheese, crustless
Parsnips with salted lemon
Served with sauce(s)

Third Remove
Lidded pie with minced lamb and fruits
Pears stewed in wine
White Roman Tart
Served with snow and sauce

Drinks
Apple cider
Water

Advertisements

Alessio Piemontese’s Hippocras

Hippocras is a mulled wine made from wine mixed with sugar and spices. It is found in many medieval cookbooks, featuring a variety of spices; Forme of Cury, Menagier de Paris, and Viandier de Tallievent sport their own different recipes, to name a few.

I chose to redact this recipe because I was already working in this book for my lip balms, and I’d just happened to stumble over it. The Secretes of the Reverende Maister Alexis of Piemont, 1558, translated to English from the 1557 French version, which was translated from the original 1555 Italian, is a fascinating set of books. They provide instructions, recipes, and tips and tricks for a variety of pursuits, from medicine to dyeing to metallurgy. It struck me that the author, whose sense of humor is not lost in the formulas of this ‘scientific’ tome, chose to include a recipe for what is likely his favorite hippocras — there are very few recipes for food or drink not intended for medicinal purposes in these books.

Excellent Ipocras. p120/736

“Take anne once of sinamon, of ginger two dragines, melligetta three dragines, cloves twoo deniers, nutmegs, galanga, of eche of them a denier, stampe all put it in a jelly bagge or strainer, then take a pinte of the best redde or white wine  you can gette, or a pinte of good malmesie or other stronge wine, mixe will all togethers, then take a pounde of Suger fined, and hauvng stamped it, putte it into the other wine, and so pouce it upon the straynour, where in you did put the saied wine with the spices, then having taken it out, you muste poure it on againe, so often until it become as cleare as it was before, stirring it sometime in the strayner or bagge: and here note that this is to make but a flagon full. Wherefore, if you will have more, you must take a greater quantitie of the said thinges. And for to make it very excellent, you maie bind a little musk in a fine linnen clothe at the end of the strainer, so that al the substances maie passe over and uppon it, the which by that meane will receive the odour and sent of the same muske.”

Notes:

melligetta = grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta)

I had some trouble with the measurements for this, possibly given that it was translated twice before appearing in English. Ounces and pints were fine enough, deniers (French for ‘penny’) could be found, but dragines still eluded me. So I did what most do and Google’d it, which lead me to the Units of Measurement in France before the French Revolution Wikipedia page. (This chart is really fantastic!)

The Table of Mass Units cites Denis Février’s “Un historique du mètre”: the law of 19 Frimaire An VIII (December 10, 1799). “The kilogramme is equal to 18,827.15 grains. The kilogramme is, in addition, defined as the weight of 1 dm3 of distilled water at 4 degrees centigrade, i.e. at maximum density,” and the table’s calculations are made from that law.

The once is listed as 30.59g, roughly 2 Tbsp – a standard ounce. The denier is listed as 1.275g, or roughly 1/5 tsp. Since the dragine was listed between the two, I assumed it fell somewhere between.

My final spice mixture did not follow these measurements precisely, because I found the cinnamon to be overwhelming. I also excluded musk, because it’s not readily available in my cupboard. 😉

Hippocras Recipe

Spice Blend:

2 Tbsp Cinnamon, powdered
2 tsp Ginger, powdered
3 tsp Grains of Paradise, ground
2 tsp Cloves, powdered
1 tsp Nutmeg, powdered
1 tsp Galangal, powdered

Instructions

  1. Heat 2 cups wine, 3 Tbsp sugar, and 3 tsp spice blend over medium heat, then set aside to cool. (Do not boil!)
  2. Strain at least twice through cheesecloth or linen, until the liquid runs clear.
  3. Serve warm or cold.

Citations

Ruscelli, Girolamo, d. ca. 1565; Ward, William, 1534-1609. The secrets of the reverend Maister Alexis of Piemont : containing excellent remedies against diverse diseases, wounds, and other accidents, with the maner to make distillations, parfumes, confitures, dying, colours, fusions, and meltings. https://archive.org/details/secretsofreveren00rusc

Pimontese, Alessio. 1555; 1682 edition. De’ secreti del R. D. Alessio Piemontese. Parti quattro. Nuovamente ristampati, e da molti errori ricorretti. Con quattro tavole copiosissime per trovare i rimedi con ogni facilità. https://web.archive.org/web/20070617103524/http://www.abocamuseum.it/bibliothecaantiqua/Book_View.asp?Id_book=76

Table of Mass Units. “Units of measurement in France before the French Revolution.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Units_of_measurement_in_France_before_the_French_Revolution

Wine Jellies

Like most modern Americans, the term ‘aspic’ conjures images of horrific molded ham and pea gelatin creations from 60’s-era cookbooks, and even sweet jello has fallen largely out of popularity. So when I was served aspic at a feast a few years ago, and fish aspic at that, I hesitated, but was overwhelmingly pleasantly surprised when I gave it a fair shot. So when I kept coming across aspics in my recipe research a few years later, instead of skipping them, I bookmarked them for later when I was ready to work up to them. As I continued, I was extremely pleased to find what I’d decided would be my starting point: something simple and familiar to me as a former college student: Wine jellies, or as we laughingly termed them, medieval jello shots.

The concept of what I consider this basic, ‘foundation’ jelly is very simple: Prepare sweet mulled wine, add the gelling agent, let it cool, and serve.

The Research

Master chef Lancelot de Casteau wrote in Ouverture de Cuisine (1604, France):

To make jelly.

Take a pot of white wine, & chafe it very hot, then put therein three quarters of a pound of sugar, one ounce of cinnamon, one ounce of nutmeg, & one ounce of coarsely ground ginger, & put it therein to temper the hot wine, & let it sit three or four hours, then pass the wine through a strainer, at the end to have the spices removed, then have a bag of white cloth like those used to strain hippocras, then cast into the wine three spoons of cow’s milk, & have a little handful of coarsely ground almonds without peels, put them into the bag, then pass the wine through the bag two or three times, until it becomes clear, & take two ounces of good husblat [isinglass?] well washed, & put them to boil with a little wine & water, until well melted, then cast it into the wine, when it is passed, through the bag it will make the prize of the jelly: when the jelly is half cold cast it into plates, & let cool until it becomes firm. Note if it doesn’t become at all firm enough, adding more husblat will help, because it could be that the husblat isn’t as good as others.

Master chef Bartolomeo Scappi wrote an extensive passage in his Opera (1570) regarding wine jelly that details making the it from calves’ feet, how to prepare it in a variety of vessels and moulds, and even using it in a syringe to decorate other moulded jellies. I haven’t included it here because it’s a couple pages’ worth of material, but for those who own the Terence Scully book, you can find it in Book II p. 258 – 241.  To prepare jelly from wether’s and calf’s feet, with which you can fill various moulds and egg shells.

We find in Nyeuwen Coock Boeck (1560, Netherlands):

2.16. To make a jelly of one quarter (liquid measure) wine

One should add two lead ginger, one lead cinnamon, a half lead nutmeg, a half lead cloves, a half lead grains of paradise, a quarter lead saffron, and some sugar, a half lead liquorice (?see glossary), 3 lead thickening, a half lead galanga. First one should cook the thickening with wine, than one must strain it. The spices one must crush and let it steep in the wine. Then one must strain it through a cloth and [add] salt to it. Then one must boil it together and let it settle (=gelatinize).

2.21. To make jelly of a quart wine

Take 4 lead thickening and steep it in wine. Then cook it in a pan and stir to prevent burning and strain it through a sieve. Then take 1 quarter lead cloves, one quarter lead nutmeg, 1 quarter lead galanga, a half lead ginger, 1½ lead cinnamon [and] an eighth lead saffron. Crush this in a mortar not a lot, and pour it in the wine. Bring it to the boil in a new earthenware pot, let it cool, and pour it several times through a wine cloth. Then take 2 lead syrup  with which one colours it, and mingle it with the strained wine. Then take wine and thickener and pour it in the pot and bring it once more to the boil. Stir to prevent burning, then strain it through a cloth and pour it in the dishes.

Note: Turnsole is red cloth with which one can colour red every thing one wants.

The Recipe

Isinglass is a gelatin made from fish bladders and is modernly only readily available from brewing suppliers. In this form, it is mixed with citric acid, among other things, because it used as a clarifying agent, and so it is not a viable modern method to make jelly. Boiling animal hooves in my rental apartment is also not viable, so modern unflavored gelatin packets are the most practical gelatin to use for modern cooks.

I also used a ratio of 1 cup liquid per 3 packages of gelatin, which produces a soft ‘gummy’. In this trial, I learned that 0.75oz of gelatin is enough to produce a solid red wine gummy that holds its form well, but 0.75oz of gelatin makes a more runny white wine gummy — so in the future, a full 1.0 oz of gelatin will be used in the white wine to maintain its shape (and also provide an easier release from the mould).

In the medieval and Renaissance periods, moulds would have been made from pewter or wood. For food safety and practical reasons, my moulds are made of silicone and can be purchased from Amazon or Michael’s.

Ingredients

1 c white wine (steeped in nutmeg, ginger, galangal, and cinnamon to taste)
1 c red wine (steeped in cloves, cinnamon, ginger, and galangal to taste)
Granulated sugar (to taste)
7 .25oz unflavored gelatin packets

This recipe prepares 2 batches – one white wine batch, one red one batch. Each batch is enough to fill more than 2 trays of gummies.

Directions

Bring wine, spices, and sugar to boil, then set aside to steep for a couple of hours. When ready to use it, strain out the spices – it usually takes 2-3 passes through a cloth for the liquid to run clear.

Put the wine mixtures back in their pots, then bring to a boil again. Mix in 3 packages of gelatin into the red wine and 4 packages of gelatin into the white wine, whisking until thoroughly blended. Spoon or pour into moulds, then chill.

Briefly set the moulds in a shallow pan of warm water for 5-10 seconds to assist in releasing the gelatin. (The warm water melts the gelatin, so don’t let them sit too long in hot water!)

Sources

Myers, Daniel. 2012. Translation of “Ouverture de Cuisine” based on the transcription by Thomas Gloning et. al. http://www.medievalcookery.com/notes/ouverture.html

Muusers, C. and Gerard Vorselman. Nyeuwen Coock Boeck, (KANTL Gent 15) (1560); Een nieuw zuidnederlands kookboek uit de vijftiende eeuw. Scripta 17. (transl. of title: A new southern Dutch cook book from the fifteenth century). http://www.coquinaria.nl/kooktekst/KA15Gent02.htm

Scully, Terence. 2011. The Opera of Bartolomeo Scappi (1570).

Candied Egg Yolks – Yemas de Santa Teresa

I often find myself clicking through recipes I find online, and I find myself wandering down so many rabbit holes of information that I forget where it was I started. Such is how I found myself reading articles about modern egg yolk preservation, which lead me eventually to a Spanish candy called Yemas de Santa Teresa. It’s a simple, cute little soft candy made simply of egg yolks cooked in simple syrup, then formed into balls and rolled in sugar, sometimes dusted with cinnamon or lemon zest. Wikipedia (and what seems like a thousand blurbs that have simply regurgitated the information there) was the first stop on the trail: Spanish claims. Philippine derivations. Medieval origins.

Medieval? Great! But where?! When?! The commercialization of this treat in 1860 Ávila is great and all, but how far back does this actually go?

Unfortunately for me, my modern Spanish is limited and my Old Spanish is nonexistent, so for my online research, I had to rely on translations and/or a lot of Ctrl + F “yemas.” Walls were hit. Frustration abounded. Then I remembered something: Sweetened eggs are everywhere in medieval cuisine after the introduction of sugar:

Menagier de Paris 1393:

“OMELETTE FRIED WITH SUGAR. Take out all the whites and beat the yolks, then put some sugar in a frying-pan and let it melt, and then fry your yolks in it, then put on a plate, with sugar on them.”

And hadn’t I just seen something like this somewhere else recently?

Master Chef Bartolomeo Scappi served something like them in his 1570 Opera:

Book VI – 152. To poach eggs in sugar.
When some sugar has been clarified, put it into a silver or well-tinned copper saucepan, or into silver dishes, and heat it up. When the sugar is hot, put egg yolks into it along with a little rosewater. Give it heat from above with either a hot shovel or tourte pan lid. Serve those eggs in the same pan with sugar and cinnamon over them. You can also cook the whites with them.

Master Chef Lancelot de Casteau served them in the 1604 Ouverture de Cuisine:

To make English eggs.
Take a dozen egg yolks well beaten, a little sugar therein: then take melted sugar in a little pot: when it begins to boil take the beaten egg yolks, put them through a strainer, & let run into the boiling syrup: that the syrup will be covered therein, when well cooked on one side turn to the other: when well cooked take them out, & make three or four pieces so, & put on a plate three or four.

..English? Well, let’s hop over channel to see what we can find there…

1575 A Proper New Booke of Cookery calls them ‘Eggs in moonshine’:

“To make egges in mone shine. Take a dishe of rose water, and a dishe full of suger, and set them upon a chafingdish, and let them boile, then take the yolkes of 8. or 9. egges newlaid, and put them therto, every one from other, and so let them harden a little, and so after this maner serve them forth, and cast a little Cinnamon and suger.”

Finding that these candies were definitely made by top chefs in the Renaissance was great and all, but.. I still didn’t have anything that could point back to Spain, which I really felt was half of my goal. Giving up on my Google-fu, I called upon The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets, which not only gave me a Spanish reference for this… but also a Portuguese reference to egg yolk sweets and their ovos moles.

“Ovos Moles
Considered one of the best-loved and most distinctive of Portuguese desserts, ovos moles (soft eggs) was created by the nuns of Aveiro, in the northern Beira Litoral province. Originally consisting of only egg yolks, sugar, and water,a modern variation substitutes rice flour for some of the yolks. …”

So, back to the internet I went, and I found another version of this

A Treatise of Portuguese Cuisine from the 15th Century; This Translation by Fernanda Gomes is based on a translation of ” Um tratado da cozinha portuguesa do século XV” at the Biblioteca Virtual – Miguel D Cervantes.

Canudos de ovos mexidos

Misturem as gemasde ovos e deitem-nas a cozer em calda rala, sem mexer, para que não se quebrem.Façam uma massa, bem sovada, de farinha de trigo, manteiga, água-de-flor e umapitada de açafrão. Em seguida abram-nocom um rolo, comopara pastel, façam os canudos e fritem-nos. Recheiem então os canudos com o doce de ovos já pronto, e passem-nospela calda de açúcar. Polvilhem comaçúcar e canela.

Beaten egg tubes

Beat egg yolks and scant syrup (I’m not sure if this refers to the overall amount or to the proportion of sugar to water),without stirring, so they won’t break. Make a dough, well kneaded, with wheat flour, butter, flower water and a pinch of salt. Next open it with a rolling pin as for pastries, make the tubes and fry them. Then fill the tubes with the already prepared egg sweet and dip them in the sugar syrup. Sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon.

At this point, I really couldn’t believe that I’d found my way through the rabbit hole in English and had managed to reach my destination without a crash course in Spanish and Portuguese vocabulary. Though not as in-depth as I’d have liked, I was able to trace the spread of this specific kind of sweet, and it is completely plausible that it was introduced earlier and just not documented, or else it lies in a book somewhere that hasn’t been translated or digitized.

So, armed with this knowledge, and a few Spanish YouTube videos for practicality’s sake, I set about the hands-on part of this project.

Recipe

Ingredients

12 egg yolks
1 c granulated sugar
3/4 c water
Powdered sugar

Directions

Combine the sugar and water, and cook over high heat until the syrup reaches soft ball stage, at about 235F. (You can test this without a thermometer by dropping a little syrup into cold water.)

Let the syrup cool slightly while you mix the yolks, then put the syrup back over low heat. Slowly pour the yolks into the syrup, whisking constantly. As the yolks cook, the mixture will pull away from the sides and become a thick paste. Let it cool on a plate.

With powdered sugar on your fingers to keep the paste from sticking, form small balls and roll them in powdered sugar, then serve.

Unfortunately, I only got one good photo of them on display at Kingdom A&S Faire, shortly before they disappeared…

16th Cent. Italian Lip Balms

A few years ago, someone on an online forum I belonged to asked the question, “What did people in medieval times do for chapped lips?”, and I went searching for an answer for them. I found this book, The Secretes of the Reverende Maister Alexis of Piemont, 1558, translated to English from the 1557 French version.

I had no experience making my own cosmetics when I started these projects, but they were easy enough to work out even with the medieval recipes provided. I will be revisiting both of these balms in the future to experiment with consistencies. I also included the only other recipe for lip balm included in this book for information and posterity’s sake.

Violet Lip Balm

Recipe:

p. 146 – (301/736 in web view)
“To heale lippes that be cleft and full of chinkes, by meanes of cold or wind.
Take gum arabicke and Dragant, as muche of the one as of the other, and make pouder of it, and incorporate it with oile of violets, and anoint your lippes therewith.”

Notes:

Dragant is the medieval term for gum tragacanth. (http://www.thousandeggs.com/glossary.html#gum%20Tragacanth)

Redaction:

Violet Lip Balm

  1. Take equal parts of powdered gum Arabic and powdered gum tragacanth and mix. Hydrate with water until the desired consistency is reached. Add a few drops of violet oil and mix.

The resulting ‘balm,’ which I would rather refer to as a very wet gum paste, is tacky as it dries, but absolutely seals chinks on the lips. It is more difficult to remove than wax-based lip balm, and left my lips feeling smooth and moisturized after I wiped it off. Because of the consistency I reached with this batch, I would feel comfortable calling this balm more medicinal than cosmetic.

 

Tinted Lip Balm

Recipe:

p. 303 – (614/736 in web view)
“Against chappings of the lippes, and of the heads of womens brests.
Take the brain of a goose, and meddle it with the brains of an Hart, and anoint the lips: or els take of Litarge of silver, of Myrrha, of ginger, of eche as you please: and make thereof pouder, and with Virgin waxe, honie and oile olive, as much as sufficeth, make an ointment, which will be marvelous. But before you lay on the ointment, wash y lips, with spittle, and then with a litle peece of Linnen cloth, lay the ointment upon the griefe.
Take Ink and mixe it with the powder of Hermodactiles, and lay it upon them: and in the beginning take Sal armoniacke and beate it finely, and lay of the powder upon the griefe.”

Notes:

  • Maister Alexis approached this recipe with a sense of humor – first stating to blend goose and hart brains, but then gives us a quite lovely recipe for a tinted cosmetic.
  • “Litarge of silver” is lead monoxide, which lends the red-orange lip and cheek color found in Renaissance cosmetics. Because we now know about lead poisoning, I have chosen to substitute iron oxide in its place, which is an acceptable natural substitute to retain the red-orange color that is used in modern homemade cosmetics.
  • Hermodactiles, or hermodactylus, is Iris tuberosa, also called snake’s-head iris or black iris.

Redaction:

Tinted Lip Balm

  1. Prepare balm containers by opening and setting near work space.
    Combine 1/32 tsp iron oxide, 1/32 tsp ginger, 1/32 tsp myrrh gum powder and set aside.
  2. Take 1 Tbsp of beeswax pellets, 7 Tbsp of olive oil, 1 Tbsp of honey, and combine in the upper bowl of a double-boiler. (I used a small glass jar suspended in a pot of boiling water.) Stir until the wax melts completely and the ingredients are blended.
  3. Stir in dry ingredients.
  4. Pour into container(s) and let cool.

After some experimentation, I found that roughly a 1:7 ratio of beeswax to olive oil creates an ideal consistency (with a good melting point) for lip balm. The sediments ultimately sank to the bottom of the mixture, but enough pigment was still suspended to lend a tint to the lips.

 

Lees Balm

I have not redacted this recipe, but chose to include it because it is actually the second recipe listed in this book for chapped lips.

Recipe:

p. 270 – (549/736 in web view)

“Against the chapping of the lips.

Take dried lees of white wine called tartar, and burn them in the fire, and temper them with rosin and grease of an hen, or duck, medled with a little honie, and so use it.”

 

Citations

Ruscelli, Girolamo, d. ca. 1565; Ward, William, 1534-1609. The secrets of the reverend Maister Alexis of Piemont : containing excellent remedies against diverse diseases, wounds, and other accidents, with the maner to make distillations, parfumes, confitures, dying, colours, fusions, and meltings. https://archive.org/details/secretsofreveren00rusc

Pimontese, Alessio. 1555; 1682 edition. De’ secreti del R. D. Alessio Piemontese. Parti quattro. Nuovamente ristampati, e da molti errori ricorretti. Con quattro tavole copiosissime per trovare i rimedi con ogni facilità. https://web.archive.org/web/20070617103524/http://www.abocamuseum.it/bibliothecaantiqua/Book_View.asp?Id_book=76

Aine’s Black Stone Scroll

The verse at the beginning of the poetry doesn’t follow any specific meter, but I tried to incorporate 1-syllable alliteration per line. The court text is adapted with permission from Master Fridrikr Tomasson. Written in Younger Futhark. Linework and runes by me, paint by Lord Sasson della Sancta Victoria. Design based on a valkyrie pendant from the Swedish History Museum.

Old Icelandic

Sólarljós skínr á Dáinnsdottir
Dregillshodd hon es glóðrauðr
Hondum hon gorir eldsmatr
Glóar hugansteinn allglatt
á afl svartasteinnfjalls

Vér, Ichijo Honen, góðar Svartasteinfjalls, ok Cerridwen de Skene, elskukona hans, fremja Aine ny Allane á Bróðerni Svartasteinn. Bjoðum þetta daginn átti ok tuttugandi Harpa vetr annarr fimm tigar landsbygðar at Svartasteinfjall goðorð um Svartastein Bardagi.

English:

The sun’s light shines on Dáinn’s daughter
Her ribbon’s hoard is ember-red
Her hands make fire’s food
Glows brightly the stone of thought
In Blackstone Mountain’s forge

We, Ichijo Honen, baron of Blackstone Mountain, and Cerridwen de Skene, his beloved wife, induct Aine ny Allane into the Order of the Black Stone. Done this 28th day of April, 52 year of the settlement in the Barony of Blackstone Mountain at Blackstone Raid.

Notes:

The first line is a play on Aine’s name: Aine was an Irish goddess of summer and generally means radiance, etc. Allane is supposedly an Old Irish word for deer, and Dainn was one of the four deer that feed on the low branches of Yggdrasil.

Ribbon’s hoard is a kenning for hair (original); fire’s food is literally coal, but also the work that fuels the barony (http://norse.ulver.com/dct/zoega/); the stone of thought is a kenning for heart (http://skaldic.abdn.ac.uk/db.php?if=default&table=kenning&val=HEART).

Darian’s Onyx Scroll


The verse at the beginning of the poetry doesn’t follow any specific meter, but I tried to incorporate 1-syllable alliteration per line. The court text is adapted with permission from Master Fridrikr Tomasson. Written in Younger Futhark. Linework and runes by me, paint by Lord Sasson della Sancta Victoria. Design based on Urnes-style brooch from the Swedish History Museum, SHM 3871. https://www.flickr.com/photos/historiska/13622254033

Old Norse/Icelandic:

At haugi Gorms greri eiki Óðins
Grennir gunnmars, skald, ok þjónn
Byrðar góðar svertsteinnums
Fjallstonnum ok landbeinum
Han hefir auðveldliga þeim

Vér, Ichijo Honen, góðar Svartasteinfjalls, ok Cerridwen de Skene, elskukona hans, fremja Darri inn Valski á Bróðerni Svarta-raf. Bjoðum þetta daginn átti ok tuttugandi Harpa vetr annarr fimm tigar landsbygðar at Svartasteinfjall goðorð um Svartasteinn Bardagi.

English:

From Gorm’s Grave grows Odin’s Oak
Feeder of war-gulls, poet, servant
The burdens of Blackstone Baron
Mountain’s teeth and Land-bones
He carries them with ease

We, Ichijo Honen, baron of Blackstone Mountain, and Cerridwen de Skene, his beloved wife, induct Darri in Valski into the Order of the Onyx. Done this 28th day of April, 52 year of the settlement in the Barony of Blackstone Mountain at Blackstone Raid.

Notes:

The first line is a play on Darian’s name. Gorm’s grave refers to Wales, where the Rhodri Mawr defeated the Danish leader Gorm around 855AD. Odin’s Oak refers to Odin’s spear; perhaps not my most accurate kenning, but I liked the sound, and Darri means spears. Feeder of war-gulls means warrior (Þorbjörn Hornklofi: Glymdrápa); Mountain’s teeth and land-bones refer to rocks and stones (http://skaldic.abdn.ac.uk/db.php?if=default&table=kenning&val=ROCK).